The cavity of the uterus is inspected with an instrument called a hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy may be either diagnostic or operative.

Diagnostic hysteroscopy can be used to investigate the cause of infertility, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, adhesions, or repeated miscarriages. It can also help locate polyps and fibroids.

An operative hysteroscopy may be used to treat certain conditions such as uterine adhesions, septum, or fibroids which can often be removed through the hysteroscope.